"Traffic fines, safety and revenue
Michael Makowsky and Thomas Stratmann use data from all traffic citations issued over a two-month period in Massachusetts and find that local tax revenue matters. For example, out-of-towners are more likely to receive a fine instead of a warning, which can be regarded as evidence of taxes being exported to non-voters. Drivers are also 26% more likely to be stopped in a town where citizens recently rejected a tax increase. There, out-of-towners are 38% more likely to be fined, and fines increase with distance of residence. These effects mostly disappear with state troopers, who should not care about local tax conditions. Other interesting results: women are less likely to be fined, as residents in small towns, who are more likely to know the policeman personally.